To compile all of the contract sources within the
contracts/ subfolder of a project:
$ brownie compile
Each time the compiler runs, Brownie compares hashes of each contract source against hashes of the existing compiled versions. If a contract has not changed it is not recompiled. If you wish to force a recompile of the entire project, use
brownie compile --all.
If one or more contracts are unable to compile, Brownie raises an exception with information about why the compilation failed. You cannot use Brownie with a project as long as compilation is failing. You can temporarily exclude a file or folder from compilation by adding an underscore (
_) to the start of the name.
Brownie supports Solidity (
>=0.4.22) and Vyper (
>=0.1.0-beta.16). The file extension determines which compiler is used:
Project contracts can import interfaces from the
interfaces/ subfolder. Interfaces are not considered primary components of a project. Adding or modifying an interface only triggers a recompile if a contract is dependent upon that interface.
interfaces/ folder is of particular use in the following situations:
- When using Vyper, where interfaces are not necessarily compilable source code and so cannot be included in the
- When using Solidity and Vyper in the same project, or multiple versions of Solidity, where compatibility issues prevent contracts from directly referencing one another.
Interfaces may be written in Solidity (
.sol) or Vyper (
.vy). Vyper contracts are also able to directly import JSON encoded ABI (
Compiler settings may be declared in the configuration file of a project. When no configuration file is present or settings are omitted, Brownie uses the following default values:
compiler: evm_version: null solc: version: null optimizer: enabled: true runs: 200 vyper: version: null
Modifying any compiler settings will result in a full recompile of the project.
Setting the Compiler Version¶
Brownie supports Solidity versions
>=0.4.22 and Vyper versions
If a compiler version is set in the configuration file, all contracts in the project are compiled using that version. The compiler is installed automatically if not already present. The version should be given as a string in the format
When the compiler version is not explicitly declared, Brownie looks at the version pragma of each contract and uses the latest matching compiler version that has been installed. If no matching version is found, the most recent release is installed.
Setting the version via pragma allows you to use multiple versions in a single project. When doing so, you may encounter compiler errors when a contract imports another contract that is meant to compile on a higher version. A good practice in this situation is to import interfaces rather than actual contracts, and set all interface pragmas as
The EVM Version¶
evm_version is set to
null. Brownie sets the ruleset based on the compiler:
- byzantium: Solidity
- petersburg: Solidity
- istanbul: Solidity
You can also set the EVM version manually. Valid options are
istanbul. You can also use the Ethereum Classic rulesets
agharta, which are converted to their Ethereum equivalents prior to being passed to the compiler.
See the Solidity EVM documentation or Vyper EVM documentation for more info on the different EVM versions and how they affect compilation.
Compiler optimization is enabled by default. Coverage evaluation was designed using optimized contracts, there is no need to disable it during testing.
Values given under
compiler.solc.optimizer in the project configuration file are passed directly to the compiler. This way you can modify specific optimizer settings. For example, to enable common subexpression elimination and the YUL optimizer:
compiler: solc: optimizer: details: cse: true yul: true
See the Solidity documentation for information on the optimizer and it’s available settings.
The Solidity compiler allows path remappings. Brownie exposes this functionality via the
compiler.solc.remappings field in the configuration file:
compiler: solc: remappings: - zeppelin=/usr/local/lib/open-zeppelin/contracts/ - github.com/ethereum/dapp-bin/=/usr/local/lib/dapp-bin/
Each value under
remappings is a string in the format
prefix=path. A remapping instructs the compiler to search for a given prefix at a specific path. For example:
This remapping instructs the compiler to search for anything starting with
Brownie automatically ensures that all remapped paths are allowed. You do not have to declare
Brownie does not detect modifications to files that are imported from outside the root folder of your project. You must manually recompile your project when an external source file changes.
Remapping Installed Packages¶
Remappings can also be applied to installed packages. For example:
compiler: solc: remappings: - "@openzeppelin=OpenZeppelinemail@example.com"
OpenZeppelinfirstname.lastname@example.org package installed, and the above remapping added to the configuration file, both of the following import statements point to the same location:
Installing the Compiler¶
If you wish to manually install a different version of
>>> from brownie.project.compiler import install_solc >>> install_solc("0.5.10")
>>> from brownie.project.compiler import install_vyper >>> install_vyper("0.2.4")